تقدير المركبات الفينولية الكلية في أوراق الزيتون كمعلم حيوي لتقييم التلوث بالرصاص في منطقة بانياس

كامل خليل, شهيد مصطفى, عبير محفوض

Abstract


هدف البحث إلى تعيين كمية المركبات الفينولية الكلية لأوراق شجر الزيتون Olea europaea L كمعلم حيوي لتقييم التلوث الجوي بالرصاص في منطقة بانياس كونها النوع السائد في منطقة الدراسة. جمعت عينات الأوراق من 6 مواقع على مسافات مختلفة من محيط مصفاة بانياس (0.1، 0.5، 2، 4، 6، 10) كم باتجاه الشرق على اعتبار أن الرياح السائدة في المنطقة غربية – جنوبية غربية خلال فصلي الشتاء (آذار) والصيف (أيلول)، تم أخذ الشاهد من منطقة تبعد حوالي 20 كم عن المصفاة باتجاه الشمال-الشرق (ريف القرداحة). تراوح تركيز المركبات الفينولية الكلية خلال فصل الصيف (70.85-45.6) ملغ مكافئ حمض الغاليك/غرام للوزن الجاف وفي منطقة الشاهد (40.4) ملغ مكافئ حمض الغاليك/غرام للوزن الجاف، وفي فصل الشتاء (52.9-35.6) ملغ مكافئ حمض الغاليك/غرام للوزن الجاف وفي منطقة الشاهد (25.8) ملغ مكافئ حمض الغاليك/غرام للوزن الجاف، أما بالنسبة لقيم الرصاص في الأوراق غير المغسولة كانت خلال فصل الصيف (0.879-2.170 ppm) وفي منطقة الشاهد (0.005 ppm) وخلال فصل الشتاء (0.479-1.023 ppm) وفي منطقة الشاهد (0.0008 ppm). لوحظ من النتائج وجود فروق معنوية في تركيز كل من المركبات الفينولية الكلية والرصاص بين المواقع (اختبار Anova)، وارتفاع في تركيز كل من الفينولات الكلية والرصاص في فصل الصيف مقارنة مع القيم في فصل الشتاء في جميع المواقع (اختبارt-test)، كما بينت النتائج وجود علاقة ارتباط سالبة بين تراكيز كل من المركبات الفينولية الكلية وكذلك تراكيز الرصاص مع المسافة عن مصفاة بانياس، كما بينت النتائج وجود علاقة ارتباط موجبة بين تراكيز المركبات الفينولية الكلية وتراكيز الرصاص بين الصيف والشتاء في جميع المواقع. وأخيراً، بينت النتائج إمكانية الاعتماد على تركيز المركبات الفينولية الكلية كمعلم حيوي لتلوث الهواء بالرصاص في منطقة بانياس.

The aim of this study was to estimate the total amount of phenolic compounds of olive trees leaves (Olea europaea L.) as Biomarker for the assessment of lead air pollution at Banias area. Olive trees were selected as the predominant species in the study area. The samples were collected from 6 locations at different distances from the vicinity of the Banias refinery (0.1, 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 10) Km. The dominated wind in the region is western - southwesterly during the winter (March) and summer (September), The control was taken from an area about 20 km from the refinery to the north-east (al-Qardahah rural).

The concentration of total phenolic compounds (TPC) during the summer was (45.6-70.85) mg GAE/g dw and in the control (40.4) mg GAE/g dw, and during the winter the content of TPC was (35.6-52.9) mg GAE/g dw and in the control (25.8) mg GAE/g dw. The concentration of Lead (Pb) in unwashed leaves during the summer was (0.879 – 2.170) ppm and in the control (0.005) ppm, whilst during the winter was (0.479-1.023) ppm and in the control (0.00083) ppm. The results showed significant differences in the concentration of total phenolic compounds and lead between sites (Anova test). High concentration of total phenols and lead in the summer compared to values in winter at all sites (t-test). The results also showed a negative correlation between the concentration of total phenolic compounds and lead with the distance from the refinery of Banias. Finally, The results showed that the TPC can be used as biomarker of lead air pollution in Banias area.


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رئيس التحرير: الأستاذ الدكتور هاني محمود شعبان

هيئة التحرير , أمين التحرير: د.أمير درويش تفيحة